Abstract :

The study of atmospheric–ionospheric connections is one of the most exciting and potentially important disciplines in geophysics. Changes in the ionospheric environment might be a method for earthquake prediction. The phenomenon of lithosphere-atmosphere-ionosphere (LAI) coupling is a promising method for earthquake prediction. Various experiments can be used to determine the variability of the ionosphere during earthquakes. The disturbance propagates upward as an atmospheric waves, creating stress, increasing temperature, as well as upper layer disturbances. By measuring ionospheric characteristics, it is quite difficult to determine the specific influence of the major earthquake on the ionospheric Total Electron Content (TEC).