Multiple phases that have at least one, two, or three dimensions in the nanoscale range make up a nanocomposite material. Phase interfaces are produced when material dimensions are reduced to the nanoscale level, and they are crucial for improving the properties of the material. Understanding the relationship between structure and property is directly influenced by the surface area to volume ratio of the reinforced material employed during the creation of nanocomposites. Opportunities for overcoming barriers in the medical, pharmaceutical, food packaging, electronics, and energy industries are provided by nanocomposties on entirely new scales. Polymeric nanocomposites are frequently created by directly incorporating inorganic nanoscale building pieces into polymers. Surface modification of the nanofillers is crucial in the creation of nanocomposites through dispersive blending. It has the power to make fillers more hydrophobic, improve interfacial adhesion by chemical bonding or chain entanglement, and get rid of the loose structure of filler agglomerates. The state of the art for nanoparticle/polymer composites is reviewed in the current work, along with the specific surface pretreatment methods and their uses. Particular emphasis is placed on the function of modified nanoparticles and the mechanisms involved in the enhancement of the mechanical characteristics and wear resistance of the composites.