Abstract :

A comprehensive block diagram of the Blood Pressure Control (BPC) System of the body based on Control Engineering principles was designed through extensive research on the role of the CNS in BP control. The BPC system developed is the first to incorporate in one process system the three mechanisms of blood pressure regulation in the body. During the course of this research it was found that the CNS plays the role of a controller and achieves this by regulating the actions of the heart, blood volume and blood vessel diameter through the cardiac and vasomotor centers in the medulla oblongata of the brain. This regulation is carried out through Nervous stimulation via Parasympathetic and Sympathetic nerves of the cardiovascular system, and Hormonal stimulation via the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System (RAAS) and Adrenal gland. The Chemical Engineer’s perspective in this role is based on principles of Control Engineering, Mathematical Modelling and Simulation. The Block diagram of the BPC System obtained shows that Process Control Engineering can indeed be applied in the study of the role the CNS plays in regulating the Blood Pressure (BP) system as well as other biological and physiological systems. The expertise of the Chemical Engineer is therefore very relevant in the biomedical field. The BPC system obtained in this study can be further developed through research and experimentation to obtain the system’s mathematical model, subsequently simulate and create the software of the system for experimental variation of the parameters involved and possibly come up with novel solutions to BP related issues.